Islamic Realm: Epoch Making Contribution of Muslim Scientists: 9th to 14th Century A.D. PDF Format

Original and Landmark Scientific Contribution by Muslim Scientists (9th to 14th Centuries AD)

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Unique Scientific Institutions Developed in the Islamic Realm (9th to 14th Centuries AD)

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Sources Used to Compile the Information contained in Appendix A

1.Ahmed, K.J., 1987, Hundred Great Muslims, Library of Islam Kazi Publications, Chicago, USA

2.Al-Hassan, Ahmad Y. and Hill, Donald R, 1988 Edition, Islamic Technology, An Illustrated History (Sponsored by UNESCO), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

3.Association of Muslim Social Scientists, 2001, Muslim Contribution to Human Civilization, pp. 58 to 86, publisher Dr. Bashir Ahmad, 10 Home Place Court, Arlington, Texas-76016, U.S.A.

4.Esposito, John L. (Editor), 1999, The Oxford History of Islam, Oxford University Pres, Oxford, U.K./New York.

5.Fakhry, Majid, 2001, Averroes (Ibn Rushd) – His Life, Works and Influences, Oneworld Publications, Oxford, England.

6.Hughes, Thomas, P., 1994, Dictionary of Islam, Kazi Publications, Chicago, U.S.A.

7.Sarton, George, 1975 Edition, Introduction to the History of science, Robert Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar Florida, U.S.A.

8.Stimson Dorothy (Editor) 1962, Sarton on the History of Science (Essays by George Sarton), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

9.Watson Peter, ‘Crossroads of Culture’, OP-ED, New York Times, April 21, 2003.

 

Transfer of Technology from Islamic Realm to European Countries (9th to 14th Centuries AD)

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Sources Used to Compile the Information contained in Appendix B

1.Al-Hassan, Ahmad Y. and Hill, Donald R, 1988 Edition, Islamic Technology, An Illustrated History (Sponsored by UNESCO), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

2.Esposito, John L. (Editor), 1999, The Oxford History of Islam, Oxford University Pres, Oxford, U.K./New York.

3.Sarton, George, 1975 Edition, Introduction to the History of Science, Robert Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar Florida, U.S.A.

4.Stimson Dorothy (Editor) 1962, Sarton on the History of Science (Essays by George Sarton), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.